Nissan Maxima QX

since 1993 of release

Repair and car operation



Nissan Maxima QX
+ Nissan Maxima brand Cars
+ Maintenance instruction
+ Settings and routine maintenance
+ Engine
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ Power supply system and release
+ engine Electric equipment
+ Control systems of the engine
+ Transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
- Brake system
   General information
   System of anti-blocking of brakes (ABS) - the general information and codes of malfunctions
   Replacement of brake shoes of disk brake mechanisms
   Removal and installation of supports of disk brake mechanisms
   Condition check, removal and installation of a brake disk
   Replacement of boots of drum-type brake mechanisms of back wheels
   Removal and installation of wheel cylinders
   Removal and installation of the main brake cylinder
   Replacement of the dosing-out valve regulator
   Check of a condition and replacement of brake lines and hoses
   Pumping of brake system
   Check of serviceability of functioning/tightness, replacement and adjustment of the vacuum amplifier of brakes
   Adjustment of the parking brake
   Cable replacement (ов) drive of the parking brake
   Adjustment of a pedal of a foot brake
   Check of serviceability of functioning and replacement of the sensor switch of stoplights
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment



System of anti-blocking of brakes (ABS) - the general information and codes of malfunctions

Hydraulic scheme of system of anti-blocking of brakes

1 — the Right forward wheel
2 — the Support of the brake mechanism
3 — ГТЦ
4 — Assembly of the vacuum amplifier of brakes
5 — the Left forward wheel
6 — the Secondary part of a contour
7 — Primary part of a contour
8 — the Left forward valve of management
9 — the Secondary sensitive valve
10 — the Primary sensitive valve
11 — the Right forward valve of management
12 — Secondary spuskny the valve
13 — Primary spuskny the valve
14 — the Right forward electromagnetic valve
15 — the management Valve

16 — the Right back electromagnetic valve
17 — Gidroakkumulyator
18 — the Pump
19 — the Pump
20 — the Driving electromotor
21 — the Tank
22 — the Tank
23 — the Left forward electromagnetic valve
24 — the management Valve
25 — the Left back electromagnetic valve
26 — the Right back wheel
27 — the Support of the brake mechanism
28 — valves regulators Sensitive to loading
29 — the Left back wheel


General information

When the vehicle is equipped with brake system of usual type, sharp squeezing of a pedal of a foot brake leads to blocking of wheels. Coupling of a protector with a paving is thus broken, and the car can go yuzy, losing controllability. The system of anti-blocking of brakes (ABS) prevents premature blocking of wheels, continuously operating speed of their rotation during braking at the expense of modulations of pressure of hydraulic liquid in each of brake mechanisms.

ABS consists of two main subsystems: electric and hydraulic. Four sensors of speed of rotation of wheels, the electronic control unit (ECU) and a set of connecting electroconducting enter into an electric part of system. The hydraulic part includes the pressure modulator, supports of disk brake mechanisms and the listed components connecting among themselves hydraulic lines.


The principle of functioning of system is rather simple. Each of wheels is equipped with the individual sensor of turns. The sensor consists of a rotor (a ring with teeth evenly located on its perimeter) and a sensitive element in the form of the podmagnichenny coil. The sensitive element of the sensor fixes the moments of passing of teeths of a rotor by it and will transform received information to the electric signals which are continuously transferred to ECU ABS. By results of processing of arriving signals the control unit receives information on relative speed of rotation of each of wheels. While all four wheels rotate with identical frequency, ABS stays in a passive condition. As soon as any of wheels starts to be blocked, ECU fixes change of an entering signal and develops command for operation of the modulator which is instantly dumping pressure of hydraulic liquid in the brake mechanism of the corresponding wheel. As soon as normal rotation of a wheel is restored, the processor stops modulator functioning.

Actually the scheme of functioning of ABS is much more difficult, than it can seem, therefore originators of the real Management do not recommend to owners of cars to make attempt of independent performance of repair of system. In case of malfunctions it will be most reasonable to address to specialists of car-care center. The function chart explaining a principle of action of a hydraulic part of ABS is given in an illustration for the reference.

ABS components

Pressure modulator


The modulator consists of the electrodriving hydraulic pump, and three electromagnetic valves switches (two left and right lobbies and back). The electric pump provides supply of hydraulic liquid in tanks and the modulator supervising process of changes of pressure in contours of brake system. The pump is placed in the general casing with modulator assembly. Electromagnetic valves switches play a role of actuation mechanisms, actually and providing demanded modulations of pressure in a hydraulic path of brake system during ABS functioning.

Wheel sensors

Special sensors by which car wheels are equipped, when passing by their sensitive elements of teeths of rotating rotors develop a frequent comb of electric impulses. The analog peak signal of the corresponding parameters arrives on the ABS control unit (ECU) which will transform it to a digital form and on the basis of the analysis of accepted information defines frequency of rotation of each of wheels.

Forward wheel sensors fasten on rotary fists in close proximity to the external CV JOINTS of rotors pressed in assemblies.

Sensors of back wheels приболчены to holders of stupichny assemblies whereas rotors are built in naves.

Electronic ABS control unit (ECU)

The electronic control unit which is often called also by the processor, is established in a luggage compartment of the car (model 1993 and 1994 of вып.), or under a forward overlay of a threshold of a driver's door (model since 1995 вып.). ECU, playing a role of the think-tank of system, accepts information arriving from wheel sensors and on the basis of its analysis exercises administration of pressure modulations in hydraulic paths of brake mechanisms of each of wheels, preventing their premature blocking. The processor continues to function and in the course of normal movement of a vehicle, constantly supervising serviceability of a condition of the ABS components.

Each time at start of the engine occurs short-term inclusion of a control lamp of ABS in an instrument guard of the car. The first diagnostic poll of a condition of the ABS components is made by the control unit when speed of movement of a vehicle reaches 6.4 km/h (4 miles/h). poll can be accompanied by a weak mechanical sound to which should not give values. In case of identification of malfunctions of ECU provides inclusion of a control lamp of ABS, at the same time in memory of the processor the corresponding code of the malfunction which reading will allow to define further a refusal source is brought.

Diagnostics and regenerative repair

At identification by the processor of malfunctions in system in an instrument guard lights up and remains to ABS included a control lamp. Diagnostics of malfunctions of anti-blocking system is among enough difficult procedures and originators of the real Management do not recommend to make it in house conditions. Nevertheless, it is possible to allocate a number of the elementary checks which can be quite successfully made by own strengths of the owner of the car and allow to define qualitatively a cause of failure (see further).

Models 1993 and 1994 of вып.


a) Disperse the car to 32 km/h (20 miles/h) and keep this speed of movement within not less than one minute;
b) Stop movement, however the engine do not suppress;
c) Open a luggage compartment and count quantity of gleams built in in assembly of the control unit (ECU) of a control lamp of ABS on a light-emitting diode. At existence in memory of the processor of codes of malfunctions the control lamp will give out series of continuous gleams with pauses on 5-10 seconds between them;
d) Interpretation of codes highlighted by a control lamp is given in the explanatory card (see below).
e) Muffle the engine.

Models since 1995 вып.

a) Disperse the car to 32 km/h (20 miles/h) and keep this speed of movement within not less than one minute;
b) Stop movement and muffle the engine;
c) Earth the plug L of the diagnostic DLC socket;
d) Turn the ignition key in the situation ON;
e) 3.6 seconds later the control lamp of ABS will start to highlight being stored in memory of the processor two-place codes of malfunctions of system. Each figure of a code is defined by a series short (for 0.4 seconds) the gleams of a lamp divided among themselves by pauses of the same duration, the second figure is separated from the first by a pause duration of 1.6 seconds. The moment of the beginning of reading is noted by code 12 delivery (one gleam, a pause, two gleams). Then again follows long (3.6 seconds) a pause after which the lamp starts to highlight being stored in memory of the control unit codes.
f) Interpretation of codes highlighted by a control lamp is given in the explanatory card (see below).

In memory of the processor the simplest malfunction can be the reason of introduction of a code, - first of all make the following checks:

a) Make sure of correctness of level of hydraulic liquid in the GTTs tank;
b) Check a condition of contact connections of the corresponding electric chains;
c) Check a condition of safety locks;
d) Check a condition of brake system (see. Head of Control and routine maintenance);
e) Check a condition of brake shoes;
f) Check a condition of a pedal of a foot brake.

Cleaning of memory of the ABS processor

For cleaning of memory of the processor disconnect grounding of the plug L of the DLC socket, - the control lamp of ABS should remain included. Make three serial grounding of the plug L within 12.5 seconds. Each subsequent grounding should last at least for 1 second more long previous, - the control lamp should be disconnected:

a) If the control lamp after the made manipulations on grounding of the plug remains included, drive away the car on car repair shop for more detailed diagnostics and necessary regenerative repair of ABS;
b) If the lamp went out, make on the car a short trip, within at least 1 minute moving with speed of 32 km/h (20 miles/h) and make sure that there was no repeated operation of a lamp. If the lamp joins again, drive away the car on car repair shop for carrying out diagnostics and regenerative repair of ABS.

Card of codes of malfunctions of ABS of models 1993 and 1994 of вып.

Quantity of gleams, odiody Allegedly faulty knot given out light or a contour
1 The electromagnetic valve switch of pressure in a path of the left forward wheel
2 The electromagnetic valve switch of pressure in a path of the right forward wheel
3 The electromagnetic valve switch of pressure in a path of the right back wheel
4 The electromagnetic valve switch of pressure in a path of the left back wheel
5 Sensor of turns of the left forward wheel
6 Sensor of turns of the right forward wheel
7 Sensor of turns of the right back wheel
8 Sensor of turns of the left back wheel
9 Electromotor and relay of its inclusion
10 Relay of turning on of the electromagnetic valve
16 (or continuous luminescence) ECU
The control lamp of ABS is included, the light-emitting diode is switched off Grounding or contour of giving of a food of ECU

Grounding or contour of giving of a food of ECU

Quantity of the gleams which are given out by a light-emitting diode Allegedly faulty knot or contour
12 Moment of the beginning of reading of codes
16 Contour of stoplights
18 Rotor of the wheel sensor
21 Break in a chain of the sensor of turns of the right forward wheel
22 Short circuit in a chain of the sensor of turns of the right forward wheel
25 Break in a chain of the sensor of turns of the left forward wheel
26 Short circuit in a chain of the sensor of turns of the left forward wheel
31 Break in a chain of the sensor of turns of the right back wheel
32 Short circuit in a chain of the sensor of turns of the right back wheel
35 Break in a chain of the sensor of turns of the left back wheel
36 Short circuit in a chain of the sensor of turns of the left back wheel
41 Final valve switch of the right forward brake mechanism of the ABS modulator
42 Inlet valve switch of the right forward brake mechanism of the ABS modulator
45 Final valve switch of the left forward brake mechanism of the ABS modulator
46 Inlet valve switch of the left forward brake mechanism of the ABS modulator
51 Final valve switch of the right back brake mechanism of the ABS modulator
52 Inlet valve switch of the right back brake mechanism of the ABS modulator
55 Final valve switch of the left back brake mechanism of the ABS modulator
56 Inlet valve switch of the left back brake mechanism of the ABS modulator
57 Violation of level of supply voltage
61 Modulator electromotor, or relay of its inclusion
63 Violation in a chain of the relay of the electromagnetic valve
71 ECU
81 Sensor of turns of the engine
85 ECU ABS
87 The engine functions in emergency operation
92 Procedure of start of a LAN broadcast is not complete
94 Reception proceeds after LAN broadcast end
96 LAN is in a tracking mode
98 Refusal of system of a LAN broadcast


The control lamp continues to burn after ignition inclusion Contour of giving of a food to ECU;
Chain of a control lamp;
ECU or socket of its electroconducting;
Zalipaniye of the relay electromagnetic it is riveted;
Contour of giving of a food to a winding of the relay of the electromagnetic valve
The SLIP indicator continues to burn after implementation of start of the engine (1999) Contour of giving of a food to ECU;
Chain of a control lamp;
ECU or socket of its electroconducting;
Zalipaniye of the relay electromagnetic it is riveted;
Contour of giving of a food to a winding of the relay of the electromagnetic valve
The control lamp continues to burn in the course of a self-diagnostics mode ECU
The control lamp does not work at ignition inclusion (1995 ÷ 1998) Safety lock;
Control lamp;
ECU
The SLIP indicator does not turn on at the working engine (1999) Safety lock;
Control lamp;
ECU
The control lamp does not work in a self-diagnostics mode ECU