Nissan Maxima QX
since 1993 of release
Repair and car operation
Nissan Maxima QX
+ Nissan Maxima brand Cars
- Maintenance instruction
Elements of systems of safety of the car
Car equipment, arrangement of devices and governing bodies
+ Settings and routine maintenance
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ Power supply system and release
+ engine Electric equipment
+ Control systems of the engine
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
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Operation receptionsMain cautions
The Nissan car will provide to the owner optimum characteristics and will show high operational qualities on roads with a good and equal covering. It is promoted by a small road gleam and low-profile tires.
Be careful at movement on rough roads and unpaved roads. Trips on them can lead to damage of a suspension bracket and/or the car bottom. Show care when moving via special limiters of speed (“the lying policeman”) which settle down directly on a roadbed, - their overcoming is at great speed also fraught with serious damages of a suspension bracket and/or the bottom.
In order to avoid damage of a front or rear bumper, be careful at congress from bordyurny stones and ramps / аппарелей trailers. Remember that the low suspension bracket does dangerous to this car entrance on borders even usual height.
Running in of the new car
To provide reliability and durability of the car in operation, throughout the first 600 km of run it is necessary to adhere to the following rules:
a) Do not get under way from a place on full gas, avoid sharp dispersals;
b) Do not brake too sharply. Normal extra earnings of new brake shoes occurs throughout 300 km of run during which it is necessary to brake, whenever possible, smoothly and with average intensity.
After repair or engine replacement, and also after replacement of brake shoes it is necessary to observe similar restrictions and recommendations.
Type of applied fuel
In order to avoid detonation development in the engine use for car filling unleaded gasoline with octane number not below 95 (on a research method - AI).
Car operation on etilirovanny fuel can lead to failure of the catalytic converter, the engine. It is worth to remember also about an environmental pollution factor.
Do not forget in stipulated by the maintenance Schedule terms (see. Head of Control and routine maintenance) to make control and correction of levels of working liquids, and also critical knots and car systems.
Watch adequacy of indications of measuring instruments and counters on an instrument guard of the car.
Transportation of goods in the car
The car is equipped with several capacities intended for placement of transported subjects.
The ware offices located in salon of the car are intended for placement of small subjects. Their number treat the main ware box in dashboards, door pockets and the pockets located in backs of seats, and also the ware box which has been built in the central console.
Large-sized subjects should be placed in a luggage compartment of the car. To transportation of lengthy subjects becomes possible thanks to a harmonious design of backs of a back seat.
It is necessary to remember, however, that the wrong transportation of cargoes can negatively affect controllability and stability of the car and, therefore, to reduce safety. Before transporting this or that cargo in the car, familiarize with information provided below.
Transportation of goods
Maximum loading capacity of the car
In transit cargoes in the car it is necessary to consider that the full mass of the car should not exceed the maximum admissible value. The full mass of the car includes: the equipped mass of the car, mass of the driver and passengers, mass of the hook-on device established on the car, and also mass of the trailer falling on it. At any options of loading of the car of load of axes also should not exceed limiting admissible values. Information on the maximum admissible values of full weight and axial loadings is provided in Specifications.
Transportation of goods in car salon
Reliably fix all placed in car salon subjects, in order to avoid their shift in case of a road accident.
Do not place large-sized subjects on the back shelf of salon, - they narrow to the driver sector of the review and can be dumped forward at collision and sharp braking.
Be convinced of that the subjects laid on a floor behind forward seats, cannot be rolled forward and under no circumstances are not capable to prevent to manipulate freely to the driver management pedals, and also cannot break correctness of adjustment of provision of forward seats.
Hold a ware box during movement by the closed.
Transportation of goods in a luggage compartment or on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car
Try to distribute cargo evenly, placing luggage possibly closer to seats. Heavy cargoes always should settle down from below, on a floor of a luggage compartment. Reliably fix transported subjects a strong cord that they could not be displaced under way the car. Never stack luggage above level of backs of forward seats.
In transit large-sized or lengthy subjects at the combined back seats, try to fix reliably them a strong cord to prevent cargo shift during emergency braking of the car. Do not stack luggage above level of backs of seats in order to avoid reduction of sector of the review to the driver.
In need of transportation of the lengthy subjects, not allowing to close a cover of a luggage compartment, remember that the fulfilled gases of the engine can get to salon of the car, - carry out the appropriate measures of precaution.
At cargo placement on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car, track, that the cumulative mass of luggage did not exceed admissible value. For obtaining more detailed information address on Nissan company car repair shop.
1. Cock the parking brake.
2. At low temperature of air switch off everything auxiliary consumers of electric energy to reduce load of the storage battery.
3. On equipped RKPP models squeeze out a coupling pedal against the stop and include neutral transfer.
4. On models from AT make sure that the lever of the selector is established in the situation "R" or "N" and squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake.
5. Without squeezing out a gas pedal, turn a key in the ignition lock in the situation "START" and include a starter. If the engine was not started at once, continue to scroll a cranked shaft a starter, remembering that duration of continuous functioning of a starter should not exceed 15 seconds. Repeated attempt of start should be made not less than ten seconds later, - the pause is necessary for cooling of the electromotor of a starter.
6. If the engine does not manage to be started at continuous work of a starter within 15 seconds, or the started engine at once глохнет, try to execute start at the pedal of gas squeezed out to a half. After successful start of the engine release a gas pedal to avoid sharp increase of turns.
7. If to start the engine still it is not possible, completely squeeze out a pedal of gas and hold her in the pressed situation during the whole time of functioning of a starter, is will help to remove the superfluous fuel which has got to the inlet pipeline and cylinders of the engine. Duration of continuous work of a starter, as well as in the previous cases, should not exceed 15 seconds. If the engine is not started after a purge of cylinders, once again try to start it at partially squeezed out pedal of gas. Right after implementation of start release a pedal
Features of start of the engine in cold weather in the conditions of highlands (height above sea level more than 2400 m)
At low temperature of air start of the engine is at a loss. In the conditions of highlands where air is strongly discharged, start of the engine becomes complicated in addition. Instructions which is necessary for following at engine start in considered conditions below are provided.
1. Switch off everything auxiliary consumers of electric energy to reduce load of the storage battery.
2. Squeeze out to a half a pedal of gas and hold her in this situation during the whole time of a prokruchivaniye of a cranked shaft of the engine a starter. Duration of continuous inclusion of a starter should not exceed 15 seconds. After implementation of successful start of the engine gradually release a gas pedal, without allowing substantial increase of turns.
3. If the engine is not started, squeeze out a gas pedal against the stop and hold her in the pressed situation during the whole time of functioning of a starter. Duration of continuous work of a starter, as well as in the previous case, should not exceed 15 seconds. If the engine still is not started, repeat attempt.
4. At negative temperature of air or if the car was not used within several days, let's to the engine get warm within 3 ÷ 4 minutes, after it begin movement.
Features of driving of the car about a manual check point
1. For ensuring smooth and unaccented switching all transfers of a forward course are synchronized. In a transmission there is a blocking device which excludes possibility of direct switching from the fifth transfer on backing transfer. When switchings transmission "up" (on the highest steps) or "down" (on the lowest steps) completely switch off coupling. After transfer of the lever of switching of a transmission to the provision of the following transfer smoothly release a coupling pedal. During movement to the chosen transfer completely remove a foot from a coupling pedal in order to avoid premature wear of components of the mechanism of the last.
2. Include backing transfer only after a full stop of the car. Attempt include a reverse under way can to lead to serious damage of a transmission. Before inclusion of a reverse gear completely switch off coupling and sustain short (in some seconds) a pause.
3. For delay of the car it is possible to use braking by the engine, having switched a transmission to one of the lowered steps. Braking by the engine allows to supervise speed of movement of the car at safe level and prevents an overheat of brake mechanisms at movement on long descents with a considerable bias. Switch a transmission to the lowered steps consistently, in process of decrease in speed not to allow excess of the most admissible frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine on a tachometer. The arrow of a tachometer should not come into a red zone of a scale. In all cases it is necessary to be guided by values of the maximum admissible speed of the car on the corresponding transfers (see below).
Features of driving of the car with automatic transmission
Start of motion
1. Squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake and move the selector lever to the provision of movement.
2. Release a parking and pedal brake and gradually begin movement.
3. Remember that turns of idling of the cold engine are always slightly higher, than at the heated-up. It is necessary to observe the increased care when switching transfer (both forward, and a backing) until the engine will not get warm.
4. In order to avoid breakthroughs at a start of motion do not disperse the engine idling.
Precautionary measures at movement
It is forbidden to switch the selector in the situation "R" or "R" during movement.
Start of the engine is possible only in the positions "R" or "N" of the lever of the selector. In other provisions of transmission the engine should not be started!
During switching from the situation "N" in the provision of movement the engine should work at single turns.
In case of a car stop on a steep slope it is necessary to squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake (previously having switched the selector in the situation "N") to hold the car on a place and to protect transmission from an overheat.
Avoid sharp start and pro-slipping of wheels. It is not necessary to disperse the engine idling when the car costs, is can lead to a sudden troganiye of the car if the selector is established in situation "D", "R", "2", "1", or to engine breakage if the selector is in the situation "N" or "R".
Do not begin movement until the engine completely will not get warm.
At a parking of an air purifier squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake and when the car will finally stop, move the selector to the situation "R". Cock the parking brake and release a pedal of a foot brake.
For switching in the provisions "R", "R" or "2" on “1” squeeze out the blokirator button. All other provisions can be included without button squeezing
Positions of the lever of the selector of ranges of transfers
Situation "R". In this position of the lever of the selector of ranges the secondary shaft of transmission is mechanically blocked. Always transfer the lever of the selector of ranges to the situation "R" at switching off or engine start. To deduce the lever of the selector of ranges from the situation "R", it is necessary to squeeze out a brake pedal, previously having released a gas pedal. Reject the lever of the selector of ranges to the right and deduce it from the situation "R".
In order to avoid breakage of AT transfer the lever to the situation "R" only after a full stop of the car. Remark: Key extraction from the lock of ignition becomes possible only after transfer of the lever of the selector in the situation "R".
Situation "R". Receptions of management by the lever of the selector of ranges at its transfer to the situation "R" (Backing) from the situation "R" are described above. Turning on of the lever in the situation "R" from the situation "N" (Neutral) make only after a full stop of the car.
Situation "N". Use the situation "N" (Neutral) at start of the decayed engine under way the car and at short stops of the car with working engine. If for any reason it is necessary for you to depart from the car, previously transfer the lever of the selector of ranges to the situation "R" (Parking). At a lever conclusion of the situation "N" squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake.
Situation "D". In this situation the lever of the selector of ranges should be constantly at car movement in normal road conditions. In a range “D” (Movement) is provided automatic gear shifting of a forward course depending on speed of the car and degree of pressing an accelerator pedal. During car movement you can notice that automatic switchings on the highest transfers occurs later, that is at higher speeds of movement if the engine of the car is yet heated-up to normal working temperature. It provides faster warming up of the engine.
Situation "2". At inclusion of a range “2” automatic transmission will constantly work at the second transfer. At a car stop the transmission does not pass to the first transfer. Continuous inclusion of the second transfer provides good traction dynamics of the car on liftings and possibility of intensive braking with the engine on abrupt descents. The range “2” is recommended to be included at a start of motion on a slippery paving, and also at movement on deep snow. It helps to prevent strong pro-slipping of driving wheels of the car.
At inclusion of a range “2” under way the car inclusion of the second transfer to transmissions automatically is late and occurs only after speed of the car will decrease to safe level on which frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine will not exceed the most admissible value.
Avoid situation "2" inclusion at speeds of movement over 115 km/h (models with the VQ30DE engine)/85 km/h (VG20DE engine). At the chosen situation "2" do not disperse the car over the stipulated limit.
Situation "1". At inclusion of a range “1” automatic transmission will constantly work at the first transfer. If inclusion of a range “1” is made for the speed more than 60 km/h (models with the VQ30DE engine)/65 km/h (VG20DE engine), transmission at first will be switched to the second transfer. Inclusion of an intermediate step allows to exclude sharp and unexpected braking by the engine.
Automatic switching of transmission on a low gear (kick-down mode)
When overtaking, or for fast pass of an inclined site of the road press an accelerator pedal against the stop, is will lead to switching on lower second or first transfer, depending on speed of movement of the car.
Inclusion of raising transfer
At normal movement raising transfer should be included. The selector handle thus should stand in situation "D". In a mode of raising transfer in process of increase in speed of the car transmission automatically increases transfer.
The mechanism of inclusion of raising transfer starts to work only after engine warming up.
At movement up or down on long slopes when "braking" by the engine is applied, raising transfer should be switched off. In addition, at long movement on low speed, or on long smooth lifting, transmission can constantly be switched between the 3rd transfer and raising, causing feeling of discomfort. In such cases also it is recommended to switch off raising transfer. When raising transfer is disconnected, the corresponding control lamp burns. After traffic conditions are normalized, again include raising transfer.
In order to avoid increase in fuel consumption by the car, it is not necessary to go on high speed with the disconnected raising transfer during long intervals of time.
The switch of operating modes of an automatic transmission (if is available)
On this automatic transmission three different modes of movement - the CAR, SNOW and SPORTS are provided. Each mode is intended for movement optimization in certain road conditions. Modes are established by the switch located on the central console of the car.
The mode is intended for normal movement at which gear shifting occurs automatically. To the CAR mode there corresponds average position of the switch ("And/t"). It is most effective at normal operation of the car with frequent stops, or at movement on the highway when conditions practically do not change. In this mode transmission is switched so that the engine worked in the most economic way. At sharp squeezing of a pedal of an accelerator transmission can be switched in the SPORTS mode. The SPORT indicator thus lights up.
The mode is intended for movement or car start on snow-covered or slippery roads. To the SNOW mode there corresponds position of the switch "Yo" at which establishment the Yo/SNOW indicator lights up. In this mode transmission is switched according to features of driving on snow - to lower turns of the engine and lower speeds of movement - on purpose to provide silent and comfortable movement.
The sports mode is intended for powerful acceleration at a sports manner of driving or on long lifting. To the SPORTS mode there corresponds position of the switch "S" at which installation the SPORT indicator lights up. In this mode transmission is switched according to features of sports driving - to higher turns of the engine and higher speeds of the car - on purpose to provide powerful acceleration when overtaking or lifting.
Operation of system of antiemergency protection leads to blocking of all transfers to AT on the third transfer. At the following, after protection operation, ignition key turn in the situation "ON" the SPORT indicator lights up for 2 seconds, and then blinks within 8 seconds. Thus the car remains in an operated condition. Antiemergency protection works under extreme conditions, for example, at strong rotation of a wheel and the subsequent sharp braking. Protection can work, even if all electric chains function normally. To restore a normal working state of the car, turn the ignition key in the situation "OFF", wait 3 seconds and return a key to the situation "ON". If the usual working condition is not restored, it is necessary to address on HUNDRED Nissans for survey and if it is necessary, transmission repair.
1. Leaving the car on parking, always cock the parking brake. Remember that the control lamp of inclusion of the parking brake built in in an instrument guard, serves only for a reminder to the driver about need of an otpuskaniye of the parking brake before a start of motion. Burning of a control lamp does not guarantee completeness of raising of the parking brake. In order to avoid a spontaneous skatyvaniye of the car on a bias be convinced that the parking brake is cocked properly.
2. At first it is necessary to cock the parking brake, and then to transfer the lever of the selector of ranges of an automatic transmission to the situation "R". Such sequence of actions prevents a casual troganiye of the car and excludes transfer of considerable load of the mechanism of blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission from skatyvayushchy the force car. Unloading of the coupling of blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission from skatyvayushchy the force car. Unloading of the coupling of blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission provides at the subsequent troganiye of the car simplicity of a conclusion of the lever from the situation "R".
3. At a car parking on lifting, develop forward wheels aside from a border, and on the contrary.
4. Before a start of motion, be convinced that the parking brake is completely released. At movement with not completely released parking brake the overheat and failure of brake mechanisms of back wheels is possible. Besides, it can lead to violation of serviceability of functioning of ABS.
Recommendation about a safe parking of the car
1. Track, that the top hatch in a roof and all windows were closed.
2. Switch off all devices of lighting.
3. Put luggage and valuable things in being closed offices, or grasp them with itself.
4. Lock locks of doors by means of a key or a remote control the uniform lock.
5. On the models equipped with anticreeping system, make sure of turning on of the indicator of system on the dashboard which testifies to device activation.
6. Never leave the car with working engine on the platforms covered with dry foliage, a high grass or other combustible materials. Remember that the case of the catalytic converter can be heated to very high temperature that is fraught with ignition.
Recommendations about security measures at operation of the models equipped with ABS
ABS does not reduce a brake way of the car and is capable to provide only preservation of controllability of the car in the course of braking. In view of told it is necessary to support constantly a safe distance to ahead going vehicle, proceeding from speed of the car and specific conditions of movement.
ABS does not prevent lateral юз at sharp change of the direction of movement of the car. For example, the car can enter into drift when passing turn on too high speed or at wheel breakthrough during lane change. Always support safe speed of a vehicle, being conformed to a condition of a paving and traffic conditions.
ABS does not prevent loss of course stability of the car. In the course of emergency braking avoid sharp breakthroughs of a steering wheel.
The brake way of the equipped ABS car can exceed a little habitual for models with usual brake system. Told especially considerably at movement on fragile and rough pavings (gravel, snow). At movement in similar road conditions lower speed and increase a distance to ahead going vehicle.
Control lamp of violations of functioning of ABS
The self-diagnostics block is switched on in structure of system of anti-blocking. Outwardly procedure of self-diagnostics of system is shown by small pulsations of a foot brake right after engine start. Problem diagnostics of ABS is made also at each braking of the car.
At identification by system of any malfunction on a control panel the corresponding control lamp lights up. Operation of a control lamp testifies that ABS is disconnected. Thus operability of working brake system remains fully, except for function of automatic control of brake effort which is carried out by ABS. If the control lamp of ABS does not die away after start of the engine or joins in movement time, it is necessary to address at the first possibility on the next car repair shop.
Joint inclusion of control lamps of ABS and refusals brake systems/raisings of the parking brake also means shutdown of function of regulation of brake effort that points to existence of malfunctions both in ABS, and in brake system. Thus the brake system of the car will continue to provide rather adequate braking of the car, however it is necessary to avoid sharp squeezing of a pedal of a foot brake. Immediately address on the next car repair shop.
Recommendations about car driving in adverse weather conditions
Antiprobuksovochny system (tracking control)
The complete set of some models can include the antiprobuksovochny system (tracking control) allowing more surely to get under way from a place and to be dispersed on a slippery paving. The system automatically limits capacity developed by the engine as soon as one of driving wheels loses coupling with a paving and starts to revolve. To feel operation of antiprobuksovochny system it is possible on reaction on a steering wheel.
Driving during a rain, in a strong fog or snowfall demands from the driver of special skills, in view of decrease in coupling of wheels with a paving and visibility deteriorations. Constantly support the car in technically working order. At commission of trips to bad weather observe extra care. Avoid use темпостата (at the corresponding complete set of the car) in adverse weather conditions.
Features of driving in adverse road conditions
Lower speed and move more slowly, than usually in normal weather conditions on a dry paving. Remember that reactions of the car to management will be more languid and slowed down even if the paving looks only slightly damp. Try to influence all controls of the car smoothly. On a wet and slippery paving sharp breakthrough of a steering wheel or careless squeezing of a brake pedal can lead to control loss over management. At the beginning of a trip, still completely without having adapted for adverse weather conditions, show the increased care. This rule is especially useful for observing at movement during snowfall. It is necessary to remember that at car operation in a warm season many useful skills of driving of the car on a slippery paving are forgotten that demands some time for their restoration.
Extra care show, operating the car during a rain as absence of practice during the dry period does not allow to be reconstructed and adapt a bridle manner for new conditions quickly.
For safety of traffic in any weather conditions it is very important to have the good review in all directions. It is worth to remember to take care also that your car remained to well appreciable drivers of other vehicles, - remember that at movement on the route inclusion of a passing beam never will prevent even during daylight hours. These requirements are more difficult for executing in adverse weather conditions.
Regularly check a condition of brushes of screen wipers and snuffled windscreen washers. Constantly support demanded level of liquid in the tank of washing liquid. Use for filling of system of washing of glasses only the liquids, recommended brands. Watch a condition of working elements of screen wipers, make their replacement as soon as brushes cease to clear glass properly. For prevention of condensation of moisture on an internal surface of glasses use having blown in glasses air, in case of need turn on the air conditioner.
Coupling of tires with a paving
Regularly supervise pressure of air in tires and degree of a deterioration of protectors of tires (depth of a pattern). Both these a factor are extremely important from the point of view of good coupling of tires with a paving and prevention of the phenomenon of hydroplaning, that is sharp reduction of coupling with the road at entrance to pools. For ensuring the best controllability with the car and traffic safety at approach of a winter season use shipovanny rubber.
During movement constantly watch changes of road conditions which often appear very unstable. Presence on the road of wet foliage can be not dangerous, than ice. Often in appearance the pure and dry paving can обледеневать separate sites. Especially dangerous conditions develop at air temperatures near 0°С when pools can alternate with наледью that does behavior of the car especially unpredictable.
Be careful when switching an automatic transmission in the lowered range. On a slippery covering sharp inclusion of a low gear can lead to short-term pro-slipping of driving wheels and car drift
Extra care and attention are required from the driver at commission of overtakings. Equally it is necessary to observe attentiveness, when overtaking your car by other vehicles. Water and dirt splashes from under wheels of the overtaken lorry can sharply worsen visibility through a windscreen. The rush of a lateral wind during commission of overtaking of the truck or the bus is dangerous control loss over management.
Models of cars considered in the real Management first of all are, of course, passenger and are intended for transportation of people and their luggage. However, at obligatory observance of a number of the general rules which are given below, Nissan cars can be used also with success for trailer towage.
The maximum vertical load of the hook-on device of the car at full mass of the trailer should not exceed 50 kgfs. For trailers with full weight to 500 kg it is necessary to adhere to the following rule: vertical load of a turnbuckle should make about 10 % from full weight of the trailer. For example, if the full mass of the trailer with cargo is equal 225 kg, vertical load of the hook-on device should make about 22.5 kgfs. Adjust load of a car turnbuckle, as appropriate placing cargo on the trailer. For a start it is recommended to place cargo so that about 60 % of its weight were ahead of a trailer axis, and 40 % - behind. If the full mass of the trailer exceeds 500 kg, try to distribute cargo on length of the trailer more evenly. Never load the trailer so that the back part of the trailer outweighed a lobby, is leads to unloading of back wheels of the car that worsens coupling of tires with a paving.
Full masses of the car and the towed trailer should not exceed the corresponding maximum admissible values. Remark: The full mass of the car includes: the equipped mass of the car, mass of the driver, passengers and luggage, mass of the hook-on device and mass of the trailer falling on it. Remember that the mass of the additional equipment established on the car and the mass of the trailer falling on a turnbuckle (at trailer towage), reduce useful loading capacity of a vehicle by the corresponding sizes.
The most reliable way of check of correctness of loading of the car and the trailer is weighing. Load the car and the trailer how they are usually maintained as a part of a road train, and weigh them on cargo scales. Define values of full mass of the car and the trailer, and also the masses falling on an axes of the car and the trailer. Compare results of measurements to requirements of Specifications.
The hook-on device should fasten in several specially provided points on the basis of a car body that loadings from the towed trailer were distributed more evenly and fell on elements of strengthening of a body. It is forbidden to mount the hook-on devices leaning only on a rear bumper which is not intended for perception of similar loads on the car. Installation of a turnbuckle should be made by car-care center qualified personnel.
Towage of the large-sized trailer (Caravan type) usually demands installation on the car of additional rear-view mirrors with the extended arms. Specify requirements of the local legislation and the Traffic regulations, concerning towages of trailers by cars. Attach the trailer to the car and estimate extent of deterioration of the back review through standard rear-view mirrors. If the review unsatisfactory, for reasons of safety it is necessary to equip the special mirrors, providing to the driver the adequate review of space behind the car.
Connection of the trailer to the car
If you are going to get the trailer equipped with brake mechanisms, be convinced that they have an electric drive of management, - the design of a hydraulic drive of working brake system of your car does not provide connection possibility to it any additional contours, in particular, for actuating of brake mechanisms of the trailer. Any way of accession to a brake hydraulic actuator of the car of brake system of the trailer, what attractive it would not seem, will lead to deterioration of efficiency of braking of the car and decrease in traffic safety.
Attaching the trailer to the car, always use a safety chain. The ends of a safety chain should be reliably fixed to the corresponding places on дышле the trailer and on the hook-on device of the car. Track, that the chain passed under dyshly the trailer, is will prevent falling of the forward end дышла on the road in case of a hitch rassoyedineniye. The free length of a chain should be sufficient not to disturb commission of turns of a road train with the minimum radiuses, however, it is not necessary to allow chain drawings on the ground.
Devices of external lighting and the alarm system on the trailer
As on trailers of various brands various laying of electroconducting can be used, it is necessary to charge the equipment of a turnbuckle to specialists of car-care center. In certain cases installation of a transitional nozzle (adapter) can be demanded.
Before connecting trailer electric equipment to the car power supply network, surely consult at car repair shop.
Preparation for trailer towage
1. Before a start of motion it is necessary to make control survey and car and trailer check.
2. Measure the vertical loading falling on the hook-on device, - use usual floor scales.
3. Check reliability of fastening дышла the trailer and a safety chain.
4. Check a technical condition of tires and pressure of air in tires on the car and the trailer. The lowered pressure of air in tires considerably worsens controllability of the car and a road train. At the same time check a condition and pressure of air in a spare wheel.
5. Having completely loaded and having attached the trailer to the car, make sure of lack of excessive "prosedaniye" of a back part of the car, - in case of need cargo in the car/trailer.
6. Check serviceability of functioning of devices of external lighting and the alarm system on the car and the trailer.
7. Specify operating restrictions of traffic regulations on the maximum speed of movement of a road train as a part of the car and the trailer. Planning to make a trip on several countries, in advance familiarize with features of local requirements and the restrictions concerning towage of the trailer with the car as in each country the restrictions can operate. Remark: In the European countries restriction of speed of movement of a road train as a part of the car and the trailer is established at level of 100 km/h.
Security measures at trailer towage
It is necessary to consider that the brake way of the car towing the trailer, increases. Therefore, moving with the trailer, you should support the increased distance to ahead going car. Try to avoid sharp braking and turns. It can lead to folding of a road train or even a trailer perevorachivaniye.
Remember that the length of a road train considerably exceeds length of the single car. At turn to the right leave between edge of a carriageway and wheels of the right board of the car the bigger distance, than usually is considerable to avoid arrival by trailer wheels on a border. Consider that at road train turn the trailer moves on an arch of smaller radius, than the car, and can run or face an obstacle which the car freely passed. When overtaking other vehicle do not hurry up to come back to the row as it can lead to collision of the overtaken car with the trailer.
The road train, in comparison with the single car, is more sensitive to action of rushes of a lateral wind and aerodynamic indignations from other cars. If you are overtaken at great speed by the heavy truck or a road train, try to support rectilinear and uniform movement of the car. To reduce the aerodynamic indignations operating on a road train from ahead going car, lower speed to leave a turbulent stream.
At trailer towage load of all main units and systems of the car increases. Therefore at frequent use of the car for towage of the trailer it is necessary to carry out periodic maintenance of the car according to regulations, characteristic for intense service conditions (see. Head of Control and routine maintenance).
Additional load of the car even more increases at road train operation in the hilly district. When overcoming long liftings watch closely a temperature mode of the engine according to the strelochny index on a control panel. At approach of an arrow of the index to an overheat zone, switch off the air conditioner (if it is equipped and included) and continue movement. If the temperature of cooling liquid of the engine does not decrease, or continues to raise, stop on a roadside of the road and let's to the engine cool down.
At movement in a hilly or hilly terrain cyclic switching of the third and fourth transfers of automatic transmission can be observed. In this case it is necessary to pass to the lowered range of "D3" that will prevent an overheat and excessive wear of details of the AT frictional elements. In order to avoid an overheat of brake mechanisms at movement on long descents use braking by the engine. For effective braking by the engine include the lowered range or one of the lowest steps of an automatic transmission.
At a road train stop on lifting do not hold it on a place by pressing педели gas, is can lead to AT overheat. Use working brake system, or the parking brake.
At management of automatic transmission in a manual mode use the third, second and first transfers, being conformed to speed of movement of the car and road conditions. Towing the trailer, do not include the fourth transfer. Recommended high-speed ranges are given in Specifications for use of various steps of a transmission.
Zaparkovyvy a road train on long parking, especially on descent or lifting, accept all precautionary measures for reliable braking of the car and the trailer. Turn forward wheels of the car so that at a road train skatyvaniye they rested against a bordyurny stone. Completely cock the parking brake and transfer the lever of the selector of ranges to the situation "R". On equipped RKPP models include the first, or a reverse gear. In addition enclose under both wheels of the trailer protivootkatny boots.
Management of road train at movement by a backing presents certain difficulties and demands from the driver of special skills and training. Move a backing carefully and slowly, do not rotate unduly quickly a steering wheel. When maneuvering by a backing in the constrained conditions it is useful, that someone, standing outside, watched movings of the trailer and directed your actions. Keep in mind that at rotation of a steering wheel clockwise (to the right) the trailer moves to the left, and on the contrary. When maneuvering road train by a backing it is recommended to hold a rim of a steering wheel from below (instead of from above, as usual, at movement by a forward course). At such successful fellow habitual compliance between the direction of turn of a steering wheel and trailer movement remains: hand shift to the left leads to trailer turn also to the left and on the contrary.